Exercises: Identifying Fragments and Run-on Sentences (Writing Errors)


Fragments and run-on sentences (especially comma splices) are common errors in academic English. To review these grammar points, see our pages on fragments, run-on sentences, and sentence types.

Once you understand independent clauses, dependent clauses, fragments, and run-on sentences, try the exercises below.

Two pencils resting on paper

Exercise Group #1: Complete Sentence or Fragment?

Decide if the below sentences are complete (i.e. complete thoughts) or fragments.

  1. On Tuesday morning last week at 8:30 a.m. 
  2. I ate breakfast with my sister. 
  3. Even though you have lived in another country. 
  4. Which is important for success in college. 
  5. This is important for success in college. 
  6. Finding someone to design your company's website is easy. 
  7. The way that people learn new skills in this modern world. 

  

Explanations

1. Fragment -- 'On...' begins a prepositional phrase because 'on' is a preposition. This phrase needs to end with a comma, and then a subject and verb should be added. E.g. "On Tuesday morning last week at 8:30 a.m, I drank some milk."
2. Complete Sentence -- This sentence has everything it needs. It has a subject (I), a verb (ate), and an object (breakfast).
3. Fragment -- This sentence is a dependent (subordinate) clause. The phrase Even though is a subordinate conjunction. To fix this fragment, you need to add an independent clause. E.g. "Even though you have lived in another country, there are still many things you haven't learned."
4. Fragment -- This is a dependent (subordinate) clause. The sentence is missing a main (independent) clause. E.g. This webpage will help you avoid errors, which is important for success in college.
5. Complete Sentence -- This is a simple sentence. It has everything a sentence needs -- a subject (the pronoun This), a verb (is), and a complement (important for success in college).
6. Complete sentence -- This is a simple sentence. "Finding someone to design your company's website" is the subject of the sentence.
7. Fragment -- The sentence has a subject ("The way that people learn new skills in this modern world"), but it is missing a verb.

Exercise Group #2: Complete Sentence, Fragment, or Run-On? (Intermediate)

Decide if the below sentences are fragments, run-ons, or complete.

  1. I ate breakfast my sister did too. 
  2. Getting up early in the morning before everyone else does. 
  3. People who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones. 
  4. If you are happy and you know it and you really want to show it. 
  5. By the time she was 20 years old. 
  6. People can do whatever they want it's up to them. 

  

Explanations

1. Run-On -- There are two sentences here. "I ate breakfast." and "My sister did too." To connect these independent clauses, you need a conjunction like "and".
2. Fragment -- This is a long subject. You need to add a verb after the subject and then finish the sentence. E.g. Getting up early in the morning before everyone else does isn't fun.
3. Complete sentence -- This is a complex sentence. The phrase "who live in glass houses" is an adjective clause and subordinate clause. The main (independent) clause is "People shouldn't throw stones."
4. Fragment -- This is a subordinate clause ("If ....."). The sentence needs a comma, and then a main (independent) clause. E.g. "If you are happy and you know it, clap your hands."
5. Fragment -- This is a dependent/subordinate clause. You need to add an independent/main clause, such as "By the time she was 20 years old, she had lived in five countries."
6. Run-on -- This should be two sentences. "People can do whatever they want. It's up to them."

 

Exercises Group #3: Complete Sentence, Fragment, or Run-On? (Advanced)

  1. Take the pizza out of the oven then let it cool. 
  2. The main reason why the leader of this country needs to be replaced immediately is obvious. 
  3. The student had tried to cheat on the test. Although, he was not successful. (focus on the underlined sentence) 
  4. Placed in a care home for the elderly where visitors could come on the weekend or on a weekday by appointment. 

  

Explanations

1. Run-on -- This should be two sentences. The word 'then' is an adverb; it cannot join two independent clauses.
2. Complete sentence -- This sentence has a long subject ("The main reason.....immediately") but the subject is followed by a verb (is). This makes it complete.
3. Fragment -- The word 'although' begins a subordinate/dependent clause. Anytime you want to use 'although' (or other subordinate conjunctions), you need to have a subordinate clause and an independent clause in the sentence. If you want to only use one clause, you can use 'However, he was not successful' because the word 'however' is not a conjunction (it is an adverb).
4. Fragment -- This is a fragment. The sentence is incomplete. It is either missing a subject ("People were placed...") or a main clause that comes afterward.

 

Exercises Group #4: Focus on Punctuation (Advanced)

Test your knowledge of commas, semi-colons, colons, and periods with these exercises.

  1. The company didn't make money, therefore, it went out of business. 
  2. The company didn't make money, so it went out of business. 
  3. Please bring the following to the event: water, some comfortable shoes, and ten dollars.
  4. The man said something quite interesting to me: The longer you live, the less you care about yourself. 
  5. The volunteers were divided into two groups, the first group received the medicine and the second group did not. 
  6. I like to sing in the shower; it's my favorite part of the day. 
  7. Whenever you need help, just give me a call, I'll be there for you. 

  

Explanations

1. Run-on (Comma splice) -- The word 'therefore' is not a conjunction. This means it cannot join two clauses.
2. Complete sentence -- Here we have two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS). This is a compound sentence.
3. Complete sentence -- This is a complete sentence. The colon at the end of the independent clause ('Please bring the following to the event') is used to introduce a list. This is a correct way to use a colon.
4. Complete sentence -- After an independent clause or complete sentence, a colon can be used to introduce another sentence.
5. Run-on (Comma splice) You cannot put a comma between two independent clauses. You either need to use a period after the first independent clause, or join the two independent clauses with a conjunction.
6. Complete Sentence -- A semi-colon functions like a period. Here we have two independent clauses joined by a semi-colon, which is correct.
7. Run-on (Comma splice) -- There are three clauses here. The first clause is a subordinate clause, and the last two are independent clauses. The last two independent clauses cannot be joined by a comma. A conjunction is needed or a period.

If you had problems with the punctuation exercises, please see these pages on colons, semi-colons, and comma-splices.


I hope you have found these exercises useful. If you find a mistake or have a question, please leave a comment below.

-- Matthew Barton, Creator of Englishcurrent.com (copyright)

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48 comments on “Exercises: Identifying Fragments and Run-on Sentences (Writing Errors)

  1. Khloe A'slinger (Posted on 3-25-2021 at 14:40) Reply

    I dont know! Also how do you turn this in?

    1. mb Post author (Posted on 3-25-2021 at 22:27) Reply

      Hello. I’ve added buttons for you to check your answers to make the page easier to use.

      1. Gulbarchin (Posted on 12-4-2021 at 07:24) Reply

        Its the best exercise I have seen!

        1. Anonymous (Posted on 1-15-2024 at 10:50) Reply

          It’s thebest exercise I have ever seen.

  2. jeff (Posted on 4-8-2021 at 12:16) Reply

    #4.1. Is correct because it is a conjunctive adverb that joins together two independent thoughts.

    1. mb Post author (Posted on 4-8-2021 at 14:50) Reply

      As you stated, ‘therefore’ is a conjunctive adverb (i.e. it is an adverb). It is not a conjunction, which means it cannot conjoin (join) two independent clauses. If you want to join two independent clauses, you need a coordinating conjunction (not an adverb).

    2. Cassandra (Posted on 4-12-2023 at 19:10) Reply

      I get them confuse time to time, I wish there was a way it identify by what you are saying to the reader.

  3. Amani Saif (Posted on 11-20-2021 at 08:52) Reply

    It is very helpful, thank you.

  4. Rafael Melendez (Posted on 11-30-2021 at 13:40) Reply

    I found it helpful these exercises

  5. Rafael Melendez (Posted on 11-30-2021 at 13:41) Reply

    Now I understand better thanks to this exercises

  6. Alexander harris (Posted on 2-25-2022 at 09:09) Reply

    It was challenging, makes a good pop quiz

  7. Aya fahes (Posted on 4-8-2022 at 04:10) Reply

    Fragmet : pepole who have sense of entitlement
    Complete sentence pepole we have a sense of entitlement

  8. Shahzanan nasser al deen (Posted on 4-8-2022 at 10:48) Reply

    Interesting exercises

  9. Fatima (Posted on 5-2-2022 at 23:50) Reply

    I like these practices and help me to get more practice.

  10. Ridouane (Posted on 6-27-2022 at 09:35) Reply

    good exercise, thanks

  11. Simranjeet kaur (Posted on 8-8-2022 at 17:53) Reply

    It is very helpful to understand these sentences.
    Thank you

  12. lisa (Posted on 10-11-2022 at 11:00) Reply

    i think i can get this concept fast with more practice

  13. Lisa schneider (Posted on 10-11-2022 at 11:01) Reply

    i think i can get this concept fast with more practice, i find it a lot easier if i have the option in front of me to see witch one looks and sounds correct

  14. Esmeralda (Posted on 10-26-2022 at 22:11) Reply

    I love the practice

  15. Harper Isom (Posted on 11-16-2022 at 11:17) Reply

    It was very helpful thank you

  16. Alice Benvegnù (Posted on 1-17-2023 at 06:16) Reply

    I really like it. In particular, it helps me to understand what my mistakes are when writing. Thank you!

  17. Sammie Reynolds (Posted on 1-17-2023 at 08:30) Reply

    I found that the excise was very helpful.

  18. Patricia Nicole A. Baylon- Eng 102 (section 5) (Posted on 1-26-2023 at 10:11) Reply

    Thank you, prof! This exercise can help me understand more.

    1. Mansour (Posted on 2-4-2023 at 11:49) Reply

      Thank you for this kind of exercise.

  19. Mansour (Posted on 2-4-2023 at 11:46) Reply

    It helps me a lot to learn such kind of sentences.

  20. Mansour (Posted on 2-4-2023 at 11:48) Reply

    Very good, I know the meaning.

  21. Anonymous (Posted on 3-17-2023 at 21:45) Reply

    For me it was very useful to practice

  22. Cassandra (Posted on 4-12-2023 at 19:08) Reply

    I see the answers as a guide, it helps to understand what your saying.

  23. Cassandra (Posted on 4-12-2023 at 19:12) Reply

    Over all I thought this exercise was great, it gave you the opportunity to express ideals in you mind about writing.

  24. anahi (Posted on 4-29-2023 at 16:48) Reply

    I really enjoy this assignment I feel that it helps me more to understand what are the complete sentences.

  25. Sherita THOMAS (Posted on 5-16-2023 at 18:08) Reply

    I THINK I DID PRETTY GOOD. THIS EXERCISE WAS VERY HELPFUL

  26. Wai Lim Leung (Posted on 10-5-2023 at 17:14) Reply

    Great & help in exercise.

  27. Ruben. (Posted on 10-5-2023 at 17:42) Reply

    Hi, great exercises! But I have a question.

    Exercises Group #4: Focus on Punctuation (Advanced)
    7. Whenever you need help, just give me a call, I’ll be there for you. – Run-on (Comma splice)

    Is it possible to be a complete sentence? Because “just give me a call” could be optional, and you can write: Whenever you need help, I’ll be there for you.

    Thanks in advance for your answer.

    1. mb Post author (Posted on 10-5-2023 at 23:28) Reply

      Ruben, great question. I’d never though of it that way but you make an interesting point. Here’s my answer: When adding additional information like a new independent clause (just give me a call) into a sentence, you can add it using parentheses () or em-dashes — . If you want to use a comma to add additional information, the information needs to be formatted in a (non-defining) relative clause or appositive that modifies a precending noun. Here, there is no preceding noun that ‘just give me a call modifies’, so it does not work grammatically.

  28. Pavankumar Patel (Posted on 10-5-2023 at 17:51) Reply

    Great exercise. Learning with fun.

  29. sandesh bhandari (Posted on 10-5-2023 at 17:54) Reply

    This practice clear some of my doubts.

  30. Helen (Posted on 11-5-2023 at 21:46) Reply

    This is activity helped me to better understand the use of colons, semi-colons, as well as the proper use of a coma. This has always been a topic I’ve never fully understood.

  31. Hassan (Posted on 11-9-2023 at 10:43) Reply

    Amazing and helpful exercises to improve grammar skills.

  32. obada (Posted on 11-10-2023 at 13:45) Reply

    good

  33. Raja Daniyal Fayyaz (Posted on 11-18-2023 at 20:29) Reply

    I can clearly understand this

  34. Florence Perez (Posted on 11-30-2023 at 17:16) Reply

    Great exercise it helps to enhance my skills.

  35. Arshpreet Kaur (Posted on 11-30-2023 at 17:33) Reply

    Its good for revision.

  36. Maninder Kaur (Posted on 11-30-2023 at 17:54) Reply

    Great and very interesting exercise

  37. Adarsh Alamulla Parambath (Posted on 11-30-2023 at 17:56) Reply

    Practice questions helps to improve our language.

  38. Serena ziadeh (Posted on 12-10-2023 at 01:10) Reply

    I really loved it it really helped me

  39. Emiana Olivero (Posted on 1-30-2024 at 08:29) Reply

    It helped me understand better.

  40. Daniela Gonzalez (Posted on 2-1-2024 at 12:50) Reply

    I think this exercises are really helpful to improve grammar, and learn to differentiate its function.

  41. SENAIT DANIEL (Posted on 2-1-2024 at 18:31) Reply

    I think this exercises are lit bit hard but its really helpful .

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