Conjunctive Adverbs (Examples & Exercises)

Think of conjunctive adverbs as adverbs. They are usually used at the beginning of a sentence to show how the main idea of the sentence relates to another idea. For example:

  • Lisa and Alan were on time. However, John arrived ten minutes late.

* The adverb However shows that the idea of the sentence ("John arrived ten minutes late") contrasts with the previous idea.

  • The employees were tired. As a result, an accident occurred.

* The adverb As a result shows that there is a cause-and-effect relationship with the the accident and the previous sentence.

Do not think of them as conjunctions because these words do not join sentences. They can only join sentences if a semi-colon is used (in that case, the semi-colon is joining the sentence). By confusing these adverbs with conjunctions, students often make a mistake called a comma splice. Example:

There was a scandal, therefore, the company's president resigned. (Incorrect= These adverbs cannot join two independent clauses)

There was a scandal. Therefore, the company's president resigned. (Correct: Two independent clauses are separated by a period.)

There was a scandal; therefore, the company's president resigned. (Correct: the semi-colon is joining the two clauses.)

Why We Use Conjunctive Adverbs

As stated, conjunctive adverbs show how two ideas (often two separate sentences) relate to each other. These relations are usually one of these:

  • Addition
  • Contrast
  • Giving an example
  • Showing a result

Conjunctive adverbs are also known as transition signals because they signal to the reader what will come next. By using these transitions, we make our writing more cohesive and connected, and overall, easier to read. These transition signals are common in academic and professional writing.

Use conjunctive adverbs in academic writing.

Conjunctive adverbs are common in academic writing. Therefore, students should learn to use them.

Common Conjunctive Adverbs and their Functions

Ordering & Time
  • First/First of all/Firstly
  • Second/Third etc
  • Finally/Lastly
  • Then
  • Next
  • Eventually
  • Immediately
  • Previously/earlier
  • Subsequently
  • Meanwhile
  • Currently/Presently
  • Later
  • In the beginning/end
  • Additionally
  • In addition
  • Also
  • Besides
  • First, second
  • Furthermore
  • Further
  • Moreover
  • However
  • In contrast
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • Still
  • On the other hand
  • On the contrary
  • Conversely
  • Rather
  • Alternatively
  • For example
  • For instance
Emphasis or Giving More Detail
  • Of course
  • Undoubtedly
  • In fact
  • Indeed
  • In particular / Particularly
  • Specifically
Results or Consequence
  • Therefore
  • Thus
  • Hence
  • As a result
  • Accordingly
  • Consequently / As a consequence
Conclusion or Summary
  • In conclusion
  • In summary
  • To sum up
  • Ultimately
  • Overall

As a student, you do not need to learn all of these, but you should learn at least one or two of each group so you can connect the ideas in your sentences effectively.

Placement of Conjunctive Adverbs

At the Beginning of the Sentence (Most Common)

  • For example, people like walking with their dogs.
  • Nonetheless, many customers were upset.

At the End of the Sentence 

  • People like walking with their dogs, for example.
  • Many customers were upset, nonetheless.

Between Subject and First Verb

  • People, for example, like walking with their dogs.
  • Many customers, nonetheless, were upset.

Note: Although is not a Conjunctive Adverb

Although is a subordinate conjunction that begins a dependent clause. It is not a conjunctive adverb.

  • I didn't buy it. Although, I wanted the item. (Incorrect)
  • I didn't buy it although I wanted the item. (Correct: although begins a dependent clause)
  • I didn't buy it. However, I wanted the item. (Correct)


Let's practice conjunctive adverbs with some exercises. All of the words in the below exercises come from the table above.

Exercise 1: Conjunctive Adverbs (Beginner)

  1. Bananas are healthy. , they are easy to eat.
  2. University can cost over $20,000 per year in the United States. , many people simply cannot afford it.
  3. The company's owner was extremely rich. , most of her employees were quite poor.
  4. There are several sports you can play in winter in Canada. , many people enjoy cross-country skiing.
  5. The participants were asked to sit down. , they were given a form to complete.


Exercise 2: Conjunctive Adverbs (Intermediate)

  1. Smoking cigarettes can cause several health problems for smokers. , it can affect the health of others who breathe in second-hand smoke.
  2. The title of the book suggests it is a story about success. , the story teaches the reader several important lessons about failure.
  3. There are many areas Alan wants to visit in Europe. , he really wants to see Switzerland and Italy.
  4. Linda was studying for her exam. , her brother was watching television in the living room.
  5. Becoming a doctor requires a lot of study and skill. , doctors' salaries are relatively high.


Exercise 3: Conjunctive Adverbs (Intermediate)

  1. Her company's policy states employees should stay home when sick. , Renee did not go to work because she had a stomach flu.
  2. The main character is presented as brave and powerful. His best friend Oliver, , is described as a weak boy who lacks confidence.
  3. , more companies are allowing their employees to work from home., this trend may become the new standard as it offers many benefits for both employees and employers.
  4. Though the meeting did provide some useful information,  most of the participants felt that it was a waste of time.


Exercise 4: Conjunctive Adverbs (Paragraph)

  • Smoking in restaurants should be banned. , when people smoke in restaurants, the smoke from their cigarettes affects other people. This smoke, called second-hand smoke, is unhealthy for others to breathe. , a 2011 report from the Johnson Institute stated that second-hand smoke is even more dangerous than the smoke inhaled by the smokers themselves. , smoking negatively affects how food tastes. It has been proven that the sense of smell contributes to how people enjoy their food. , if the restaurant smells like an ashtray, eating food in it will not be as enjoyable. , due to these negative factors, government should take measures to ensure people are not allowed to smoke in restaurants. This will create a better dining experience for smokers and non-smokers.




Questions? Find a mistake? Leave a comment below!

- Created by Matthew Barton of (copyright)

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52 comments on “Conjunctive Adverbs (Examples & Exercises)

  1. Glaucia (Posted on 4-22-2020 at 08:49) Reply

    Good exercise with auto correction

    1. Janet Gschwend (Posted on 1-26-2022 at 16:39) Reply

      These are very good exercises and I like to auto correction too.

  2. Laura (Posted on 10-3-2020 at 00:05) Reply

    Good practice!

    1. Janet Gschwend (Posted on 1-26-2022 at 16:40) Reply

      Hi Laura, I also think these are good exercises.

    2. Hiral (Posted on 3-10-2022 at 18:43) Reply

      This is amazing… very interesting experience

  3. Eleanor (Posted on 10-26-2020 at 06:00) Reply

    In exercise 2, the verb ‘breathe’ needs to be used instead of the noun ‘breath.’
    Otherwise, these are helpful illustrations and exercises.
    Thank you!

    1. mb Post author (Posted on 10-26-2020 at 12:10) Reply


      1. Janet Gschwend (Posted on 1-26-2022 at 16:42) Reply

        Wow Eleanor, I caught that too.

  4. Mir Haneef (Posted on 10-31-2020 at 02:47) Reply

    Great job

  5. Anonymous (Posted on 11-29-2020 at 05:28) Reply

    Check answers didn’t respond.why?bro why?

    1. mb Post author (Posted on 11-29-2020 at 13:52) Reply

      I’m not sure. It seems to be working bro.

  6. marco medina (Posted on 12-4-2020 at 09:12) Reply

    I really enjoyed this practice it was helpful

  7. anonymous bawaji (Posted on 1-4-2021 at 00:09) Reply

    good excersice

  8. Pew (Posted on 1-28-2021 at 22:36) Reply

    It really helps me for my upcoming exam thanks dude

  9. Rubi Mendez (Posted on 2-26-2021 at 14:23) Reply

    a little hard for me

  10. Patrica (Posted on 3-2-2021 at 00:37) Reply

    This practice really helps me to undertand better the use of conjunctive Adverbs.

  11. Lexi rowe (Posted on 3-11-2021 at 10:46) Reply

    This helped

    1. Chloe Scoggin (Posted on 3-11-2021 at 11:03) Reply


  12. Lexi (Posted on 3-11-2021 at 10:59) Reply

    This helped

  13. Chimes (Posted on 4-6-2021 at 23:03) Reply

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  14. Arath Esparza (Posted on 5-13-2021 at 21:27) Reply

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  15. Princess Jallah (Posted on 7-18-2021 at 15:06) Reply

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    1. M.RAYYAN SAAD (Posted on 1-4-2022 at 04:24) Reply

      This is good thing to understand conjunctive adverb

  16. Edward (Posted on 8-23-2021 at 23:14) Reply

    undoubtedly, these exercises are very helpful!

  17. Lisa Tapia (Posted on 10-27-2021 at 23:28) Reply

    I love them! Not as difficult as I thought. :)

  18. Not Matt (Posted on 12-13-2021 at 05:16) Reply


  19. Anonymous (Posted on 1-25-2022 at 04:08) Reply

    nice excersise but i think that more than a single word is suitable to put in the blank as they make sense so i think its would be better if there could be more than 1 correct answer but overall it is super helpful…

    1. mb Post author (Posted on 1-26-2022 at 11:14) Reply

      Hello. There should only be one correct answer for each question. Which question do you believe has more than one possible answer (among the options provided)?

      1. aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa (Posted on 1-17-2023 at 13:18) Reply

        like for example the sentence Linda was studying for her exam. It could be meanwhile and on the contrary.

  20. Janet Gschwend (Posted on 1-26-2022 at 16:42) Reply

    I enjoyed doing these exercises. It made good practice in writing.

  21. Gina (Posted on 3-22-2022 at 03:40) Reply

    It was the best exercise ever! I love it!!!!

  22. Grace Cooper (Posted on 9-7-2022 at 12:19) Reply

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  23. dskjflkj(don't want to tell my name) (Posted on 9-8-2022 at 07:55) Reply

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  25. Anonymous (Posted on 9-28-2022 at 10:29) Reply

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  26. Carlos Ley. (Posted on 9-28-2022 at 15:29) Reply

    Thank you very much. Very good exercise. Keep up the good work!

    Carlos Ley.

  27. Alice Benvegnù (Posted on 1-17-2023 at 05:58) Reply

    I enjoyed doing these exercises! I think it was very useful, and it give you an idea of how you are supposed to write a formal essay.

  28. Unknown (Posted on 2-20-2023 at 06:14) Reply

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  29. Cam (Posted on 4-6-2023 at 09:14) Reply

    I finished

  30. Anonymous (Posted on 4-22-2023 at 15:26) Reply

    Great exercise!

  31. Melissa Inzunza (Posted on 7-4-2023 at 16:53) Reply

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  32. Madison Medina (Posted on 9-22-2023 at 13:09) Reply

    I learned more really good exercise!

  33. Sanle hu (Posted on 9-29-2023 at 21:32) Reply

    Great excite, I learned a lot

  34. Stella (Posted on 10-2-2023 at 17:05) Reply

    Very good exercise.I learn how to use the conductive adverb “in contrast”

  35. Rashid Obaid Rashid Alghafri (Posted on 1-31-2024 at 02:32) Reply


  36. Tien Nguyen (Posted on 3-3-2024 at 15:25) Reply

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  37. Sabien (Posted on 3-18-2024 at 20:17) Reply

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  38. Jael Navarro (Posted on 3-19-2024 at 10:09) Reply

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  39. William R. Lim Nunez (Posted on 3-21-2024 at 23:29) Reply

    Thank you for this practice and providing the box with various options and giving me a chance to correct it and learn form it. When I read the sentence with the right term or word, it made more sense and it was helpful to see it written correctly instantly.

  40. William R. Lim Nunez (Posted on 3-21-2024 at 23:30) Reply

    Thank you for this practice and providing the box with various options and giving me a chance to correct it and learn from it.

  41. Kero hosny (Posted on 3-31-2024 at 10:33) Reply

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